The MMPI-ARC and MMPI-AF Scales: Psychometric properties of the MMPI-2-RF’s Restructured Clinical (RC) and higher order factor scales when adapted for use with archival adolescent MMPI data.

  • Susan L Trumbetta Vassar College
  • P. Kevin Bolinskey Indiana State University
  • Irving I Gottesman University of Minnesota University of Virginia


Objective: To explore the psychometric properties of MMPI-adapted versions of the MMPI-2-RF’s RC and factor scales when applied to archival adolescent MMPI data. Method: We explored the internal consistency, temporal stability, and convergent and criterion validity of newly derived MMPI-adapted RC scales and MMPI-adapted higher-order factors (MMPI-ARC and MMPI-AF) using data from the first normative adolescent MMPI samples: 3,971 ninth graders assessed in Minneapolis public schools in 1947-1948 and 11,329 ninth graders assessed statewide in 1954. Results: Most MMPI-ARC and MMPI-AF scales showed good internal reliability, which did not vary uniformly with the proportion of available items. The MMPI-ARC scales corresponded most strongly with the same-numbered original MMPI scales 1, 7, 8 and 9 and least, with scale 3. ARC4 and ABXD were strong predictors of behavior, and ARC3 and 4 captured much of the covariation of reported problem behaviors with MMPI CYN and MMPI Scale 4, respectively. Conclusions: This first psychometric investigation of the MMPI-ARC and MMPI-AF scales suggests that they represent additional, powerful research tools for studies based on historically invaluable, MMPI-assessed samples. Keywords: archival data, data mining, gender differences, health, lifespan, longevity, longitudinal studies, MMPI, MMPI-ARC, MMPI-2-AF, MMPI-2-RF, personality, psychopathology, Restructured Clinical Scales, sex differences

Author Biographies

Susan L Trumbetta, Vassar College
Professor, Department of Psychology Program in Neuroscience & Behavior
P. Kevin Bolinskey, Indiana State University
Associate Professor, Department of Psychology
Irving I Gottesman, University of Minnesota University of Virginia



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