The MMPI-ARC and MMPI-AF Scales: Psychometric properties of the MMPI-2-RF’s Restructured Clinical (RC) and higher order factor scales when adapted for use with archival adolescent MMPI data.
AbstractObjective: To explore the psychometric properties of MMPI-adapted versions of the MMPI-2-RF’s RC and factor scales when applied to archival adolescent MMPI data. Method: We explored the internal consistency, temporal stability, and convergent and criterion validity of newly derived MMPI-adapted RC scales and MMPI-adapted higher-order factors (MMPI-ARC and MMPI-AF) using data from the first normative adolescent MMPI samples: 3,971 ninth graders assessed in Minneapolis public schools in 1947-1948 and 11,329 ninth graders assessed statewide in 1954. Results: Most MMPI-ARC and MMPI-AF scales showed good internal reliability, which did not vary uniformly with the proportion of available items. The MMPI-ARC scales corresponded most strongly with the same-numbered original MMPI scales 1, 7, 8 and 9 and least, with scale 3. ARC4 and ABXD were strong predictors of behavior, and ARC3 and 4 captured much of the covariation of reported problem behaviors with MMPI CYN and MMPI Scale 4, respectively. Conclusions: This first psychometric investigation of the MMPI-ARC and MMPI-AF scales suggests that they represent additional, powerful research tools for studies based on historically invaluable, MMPI-assessed samples. Keywords: archival data, data mining, gender differences, health, lifespan, longevity, longitudinal studies, MMPI, MMPI-ARC, MMPI-2-AF, MMPI-2-RF, personality, psychopathology, Restructured Clinical Scales, sex differences
Archer, R. P. (2006). A perspective on the restructured clinical (RC) scale project. Journal of Personality Assessment: Special Issue: The MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical Scales, 87(2), 179-185. DOI:10.1207/s15327752jpa8702_07
Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Tellegen, A. (2008). MMPI-2-RF: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form. Manual for Administration, Scoring and Interpretation. Minneapolis: Pearson, University of Minnesota Press.
Bolinskey, P.K., Trumbetta, S.L., Hanson, D.R., & Gottesman, I.I. (2010). Predicting adult psychopathology from adolescent MMPIs: Some victories. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(4), 324-330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.01.026
Butcher, J.N., Dahlstrom, W.G., Graham, J.R., Tellegen, A., & Kaemmer, B. (1989). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2: Manual for administration and scoring. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Butcher, J.N., Williams, C.L., Graham, J.R., Archer, R.P., Tellegen, A., Ben-Porath, Y.S., & Kaemmer, B. (1992). MMPI-A (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory -Adolescent): Manual for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Casey, B.J., Getz, S., & Galvan, A. (2008). The adolescent brain. Developmental Review, 28 (1), 62-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2007.08.003,
Caspi, A., Roberts, B.W., & Shiner, R.L. (2005). Personality development: Stability and Change. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 453-484. http://www.annualreviews.org/toc/psych/56/1
Dragon, W. R., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Handel, R. W. (2012). Examining the impact of unscorable item responses on the validity and interpretability of MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF restructured clinical (RC) scale scores. Assessment, 19, 101-113. doi:10.1177/1073191111415362
Hathaway, S.R., & McKinley, J.C. (1943). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Hathaway, S.R., & Monachesi, E.D. (1963). Adolescent personality and behavior: MMPI patterns of normal, delinquent, dropout, and other outcomes. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Klimstra, T.A., Hale, W.W., Raaijmakers, Q.A.W., Branje, S.J.T., & Meeus, W.H.J. (2009). Maturation of personality in adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96 (4), 898-912. doi: 10.1037/a0014746
Meyer, G. J. (2006). Special issue: The MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical Scales. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87(2), 119-120. DOI:10.1207/s15327752jpa8702_01
Tellegen, A., Ben-Porath, Y. S., McNulty, J. L., Arbisi, P. A., Graham, J. R.,& Kaemmer, B. (2003). MMPI–2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales: Development, validation, and interpretation. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Tellegen, A., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (2008). MMPI-2-RF (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form): Technical manual. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Tellegen, A., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Sellbom, M. (2009). Construct validity of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) scales: Reply to Rouse, Greene, Butcher, Nichols, and Williams. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(3), 211-221. DOI:10.1080/00223890902794192
Tellegen, A., Watson, D., & Clark, L.A. (1999). On the dimensional and hierarchical structure of affect. Psychological Science, 10 (4), 297-303. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00157
Wiggins, J.S. (1966). Substantive dimensions of self-report in the MMPI item pool. Psychological Monographs, 80, 22, Whole No. 630.
Wirt, R.D., & Briggs, P.F. (1959). Personality and environmental factors in the development of delinquency. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 73(15), 1-47.