Psychiatric and Neuropsychological Sequelae of HSV Encephalitis
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is often caused by the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) viral infection. This neurotropic double stranded DNA virus has been shown to impair the components that make the blood brain barrier where it changes its integrity and permeability, leading the virus to reach the brain. Several studies have demonstrated that HSV-1 impacts the temporal and frontal lobes, as well as the limbic system. This leads to damage to the brain which is discussed throughout this review. Furthermore, the growing evidence indicating an association between HSVE and the neuropsychological effects, as well as limitations of current research and future research directions will be discussed. While great progress has been made in understanding this infection, clinicians should be vigilant for the development of acute and chronic complications associated with HSVE and autoimmune encephalitis, differential diagnosis, and psychological disorders that are experienced by individuals with HSVE, indicating further research efforts aimed at improving the understanding of the long-term sequelae.