Development and Psychometric Examinations of a Simplified Chinese Mandarin Translation and Adaptation of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents


  • Gary L Canivez Eastern Illinois University
  • Yi Ding
  • Paul A McDermott


Assessment of youth psychopathology in Chinese schools is limited by an absence of empirically validated scales. The present study reports on the development and initial assessment of psychometric properties of a simplified Chinese Mandarin translation and adaptation of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents, a teacher-report behavior rating scale with a representative U.S. standardization sample. Comparisons of a large sample (N = 554) of Chinese elementary school students (Grades 1-6) with an age and grade matched sample from the ASCA standardization data found similar base rates of positive behaviors, rare problem behaviors, and common problem behaviors, suggesting cross-cultural similarity. Scale level assessment found no meaningful differences between the Chinese sample and the age and grade matched ASCA standardization sample in mean raw scores for ASCA core syndromes, supplementary syndromes, or global adjustment scales as all effect sizes were trivial. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Author Biographies

Gary L Canivez, Eastern Illinois University

Gary L. Canivez, Ph.D., NCSP, is a Professor of Psychology at Eastern Illinois University, USA. His research interests are in applied psychometrics in evaluating psychological and educational tests (including international applications) and empirically supported test interpretation practices.

Yi Ding

Yi Ding, Ph.D., NCSP, is a professor of School Psychology at Fordham University in the United States. Her research interests include reading disabilities, mathematics learning disabilities, developmental disabilities, STEM learning, and special education and school psychology issues based on a multicultural perspective.

Paul A McDermott

Paul A. McDermott, PhD, is Professor of Education with the Quantitative Methods Program, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.  He specializes in complex multilevel and longitudinal research models, psychometrics, and development of child and adolescent measures of learning behaviors and psychopathology, and early childhood literacy, language, and mathematics. Inquiries should be directed to