Venezuelan Report on the MMPI-2 RC Scales when Simulating a Pain Scenario

  • Berenice Saez Stephen F. Austin State University
  • Luis E Aguerrevere Stephen F. Austin State University
  • Robert J Polewan Stephen F. Austin State University
  • Roselia Juan Stephen F. Austin State University
  • Rebecca Recio Swift Stephen F. Austin State University
  • Timothy J Swift Stephen F. Austin State University


When experiencing a painful injury, some Latino subcultures (e.g., Puerto Ricans) tend to report more psychological distress than other Latinos and non-Latino Whites. The purpose of this paper was to determine if Venezuelans, like Puerto Ricans, report higher levels of psychological discomfort when pretending to be in pain, when compared to Latinos and non-Latino Whites living in the U.S. In this study, participants were asked to complete the MMPI-2 Restructure Clinical (RC) Scales in standard fashion and while pretending they have been in continuous pain for six months. Venezuelans scored significantly higher on RC1 and significantly lower on RC4 than the other groups when pretending to be in pain. The current results suggest that Venezuelans may feel comfortable reporting emotional stress via physical complaints and do not see themselves as acting antisocially as the result of a painful injury. Clinical implications are discussed.

Author Biographies

Berenice Saez, Stephen F. Austin State University
Human Services, Graduate Student
Luis E Aguerrevere, Stephen F. Austin State University
Human Services, Associate Professor
Robert J Polewan, Stephen F. Austin State University
Psychology, Assistant Professor
Roselia Juan, Stephen F. Austin State University
Human Services, Graduate Student
Rebecca Recio Swift, Stephen F. Austin State University
Human Services, Graduate Student
Timothy J Swift, Stephen F. Austin State University
Human Services, Graduate Student



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Personality Assessment